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Agriculture

Qiurui Zhu, Eric A. Davidson, Jacob G. Hagedorn, Mark S. Castro, Thomas R. Fisher, Rebecca J. Fox, Shannon E. Brown, James W. Lewis. 2023

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Tyler L. Anthony, Daphne J. Szutu, Joseph G. Verfaillie, Dennis D. Baldocchi & Whendee L. Silver, 2023

The researchers used long-term automated measurements to quantify patterns and drivers of greenhouse gas fluxes in a continuous alfalfa agroecosystem in California. They found the alfalfa site was a large N2O source, offsetting the ecosystem CO2 and CH4 sink by up to 14% annually. Short-term N2O emissions events (hot moments) accounted for ≤1% of measurements but up to 57% of annual emissions. Seasonal and daily trends in rainfall and irrigation were the primary drivers of hot moments of N2O emissions.

eosAC chambers were deployed in a 10 x 10 m grid with a Picarro G2508 CRDS gas analyzer for continuous monitoring of CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes.

The ability of the Eosense autochamber system to capture high frequency continuous data over a long term (~4 years) with very little downtime (~2%) allowed the researchers to capture significant short term N2O flux events. Since hot moments can account for such a large proportion of yearly budgets a robust system is essential for a complete picture of ecosystem fluxes. The soil respiration measurements provided by the opaque eosAC were also highly complementary to Ameriflux network NEE and satellite-derived NIRv data for a deep analysis of the site.

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M. Ramlow, E.J. Foster, S.J. Del Grosso, M.F. Cotrufo, 2019

This study evaluated a maize field in northern Colorado under deficit irrigation treatments with a woody biochar amendment. They measured crop biomass, grain yield, grain nitrogen uptake, mineral nitrogen availability, soil water content, soil field capacity, soil carbon sequestration and N2O emissions. Both biochar amendments and limited irrigation treatments did not significantly impact yield-scaled cumulative N2O emissions or irrigation water-use efficiency. Among other findings, this study confirms the diminished biochar N2O emission reductions in the field relative to most lab incubations due to drier field conditions and crop nitrogen uptake.

An eosAC deployed along with static chambers to capture temporal variability.

Six eosAC autochambers, an eosMX multiplexer and a Picarro G2508 analyzer gathered data for a 5 month period with high temporal resolution. The measurement lengths were 30 minutes with 5 minutes in between. These were used in combination with 24 static chambers to capture spatial variability. The automated chamber system fluxes were used for quality control of the weekly static chamber measurements ensuring that those measurements were representative of fluxes over the full day, and that they caught the primary N2O peaks throughout the field season.

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Criscuoli I, Ventura M, Sperotto A, Panzacchi P, Tonon G. 2019

A pot experiment was set up to investigate the impact of woodchips biochar on the temperature sensitivity of the main GHG (CO2, CH4, and N2O) emissions from soil. The study found that biochar can reduce the soil’s CH4 uptake capacity under warming scenarios, while its effect on CO2 and N2O emissions depends on other factors such as soil moisture and nutrient availability.

Relationship between CH4 fluxes and soil temperature for: a) Control treatment, b) 0.021 kg of biochar/kg of soil, and c) 0.042 kg of biochar/kg of soil.

Three eosAC autochambers and an eosMX multiplexer were deployed on three biochar treatments each with three repetitions. The Eosense autochamber system provides high temporal resolution, 10 min per measurement in this study, and simultaneous flux measurements of multiple gas species. The researchers varied the soil temperature while keeping soil moisture constant. Soil temperature and moisture can easily be monitored with external sensors available for the Eosense autochambers.

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Wetlands & Peatlands

Kyle S. Hemes, Samuel D. Chamberlain, Elke Eichelmann, Tyler Anthony, Amy Valach, Kuno Kasak, Daphne Szutu, Joe Verfaillie, Whendee L. Silver, Dennis D. Baldocchi. 2019

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Heida L. Diefenderfer, Valerie I. Cullinan, Amy B. Borde, Cailene M. Gunn, and Ronald M. Thom, 2018

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Carbon Isotopes

Christopher S. McCloskey, Wilfred Otten, Eric Paterson, Ben Ingram, and Guy J. D. Kirk, 2020

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Rainforest

Debjani Sihi1, Xiaofeng Xu, Mónica Salazar Ortiz, Christine S. O’Connell, Whendee L. Silver, Carla López-Lloreda, Julia M. Brenner, Ryan K. Quinn, Jana R. Phillips, Brent D. Newman, and Melanie A. Mayes, 2020

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Other Applications

Christine S. O’Connell, Tyler L. Anthony, Melanie A. Mayes, Tibisay Pérez, Debjani Sihi and Whendee L. Silver, 2022

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Daniela Bona, Donato Scrinzi, Giustino Tonon, Maurizio Ventura, Tiziana Nardin, Fabio Zottele, Daniele Andreis, Gianni Andreottola, Luca Fiori, and Silvia Silvestri, 2022

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